Progression in the Out-of-Doors Program

A progression chart for outdoor activities (found in The Canadian Guider, June 1957)

Look Out

  • Wonder what this world is like that starts at our doorstep

Meet Out

  • Look – Observe the outdoor worldUrszula
  • See – Trees, Birds, etc.
  • Listen – Nature sounds
  • Nature Games
  • Nature Songs
  • Nature Dances

Walk Out

  • A walk around the block to see what we can see
  • Collect a knotty pine cone
  • Touch a tall tree

My world is getting bigger and bigger!

Hike Out

  • A walk with a purposeLynda
    • Bird Hike
    • Rock Hike
    • Gadget Hike
    • Inch Hike
    • Penny Hike
    • Road Side Cribbage
    • Colour Hike
    • Rainbow Hike
    • Trailing Hike
    • Hobo Hike

Will wonders never cease?

Cook Out

  • Now we are ready to try:
    • To whittle shavings or a fuzz stick
    • To light a fire
  • To test
    • Nosebagcookingatcamp-low
    • One Pot
    • Skillet
    • Stick
      • Toasting
      • Broiling
    • Ember
      • Aluminum Foil
      • Mud
      • Wet Paper
    • Reflector
      • Planking
    • Beanhole
      • Emueing

All this and Heaven too!

Sleep Out

  • For More…Mary
  • To Tie Three Knots
    • Square Knot
    • Clove Hitch
    • Bowline
  • To prepare for an overnight
    • Bedroll
    • Klondike
    • Toilet Kit
  • Plan what to take
  • Know how to choose a good safe spot for sleeping
  • Know how to make a comfortable bed of leaves, pine needles or boughs

And Peace comes dropping slowly

Camp Out

  • And More…
  • Plan what to wear and what to take
  • Know safety rules and first aid
  • Make outdoor cooking equipment
    • Cooking Equipment
    • Cooking Utensils
    • Toasting Forks or Broilersg30
    • Pot Hooks & Cranes
  • Be safety wise on the jack knife and fire-building
  • Establish a camp site with:
    • Caches
    • Latrines
    • Sleeping Quarters
    • Lash Gadgets
      • Table Washstand
    • Pitch and Strike a Tent
  • Make incinerators and grease pits
  • Handle garbage disposal and dishwashing

What ho my gypsys where are you going?

Trip Out

  • Now we will use everything we have learned!hiker-low
  • To plan a trip that offers interesting and worthwhile program possibilities
  • Know how to plan meals, menus, places to eat, purchasing, storage
  • Know how to care for means or transportation if not walking
  • How to plan routes, transportation and necessary arrangements
  • How to use road maps, city maps, geological survey maps, charts, timetables, compass
  • How to select, setup and dismantle campsite in a minimum of time
  • Determine costs, budget and keep financial records
  • How to select, pack and transport a minimum personal and group equipment needed for personal use, shelter, cooking, eating and sanitary arrangements

Outdoor Guiding – Camping Evenings

Camping season will be here soon – how will you get your unit ready to go?

Part 3 of a series of articles on Outdoor Guiding that appeared in The Guide. This article appeared in the May 23, 1925 issue.

     Now that the evenings are long and light why don’t you ask your Guiders if, instead of an ordinary “Company parade,” you may have an evening “in camp”? You only require the use of a field, or a camp evening has been held in a yard or school playground – although, of course, the tent pitching had to be scrapped, the most realistic tents being made out of an easel and a dust-sheet!

     There are many things you can do in a camp evening, and you can learn lots as well; I am going to give you a few suggestions here which you can adopt or not as you like.

     First of all you can plan your campsite. This is sometimes done as a competition the week before, the patrols going to the field and each Leader making out – from the suggestions of her Guides – a plan of how she would arrange the camp (where the tents would be pitched, kitchen made, etc.)

     If you are lucky enough to have the use of a tent, your evening can begin by pitching this, learning the quickest and best method of doing it, and so on. Or if you have to improvise tents, each patrol could make its own, being given so long to do it as a competition.

     Once the tents are ready the Company would go to bed, (the part of the evening which thrills smaller Guides!) You then scramble up when the whistle blows and learn to make a flagstaff and break colours correctly. (This part of the evening can include a roll-call and inspection, so that subscriptions are taken as usual and notices given out.)

     After “breakfast” which can be a competition of some kind with pencils and note-books in the place of knives and forks, you might practice camp-craft for the rest of the morning. Learning about the care of tents, signalling, and games in patrols, take up the time until you have dinner, which, if you are lucky enough to be allowed to light a real fire, might be a lesson in fire-lighting and perhaps some real cooking as well.

     “Rest hour” is the quiet time in the middle of the evening when you play a listening game, or someone reads or tells a woodcraft yarn.

     More games, and possibly a camp sing-song will bring your camp evening to an end, as you will have to leave time to tidy everything up before you go home again.

     As you will see from this very brief outline there are plenty of things to be done during an evening “in camp,” and many others which I have not mentioned as well. If you want to bring in drill, you can go for a “march,” or do physical jerks when you get up in the morning. Your ordinary Company closing ceremonial and the singing of “Taps” to end up, makes a very appropriate ending before you dismiss. 

Activity Suggestions for A Modern-Day Evening in Camp

Plan Your Campsite 

  • Draw a picture of your campsite – show where the tents, fire pits, latrines/washrooms, etc. will be located. Photographs or diagrams could be used and then the girls decide where to put the ‘moveable objects’ (i.e. tents, picnic tables)
  • Learn how to choose a good site to pitch a tent. 
  • Raise awareness of considerations such as distances between different things – i.e. fire pits, tents, garbage, food storage.

Tent Pitching

  • Set up a tent (indoors or outdoors). Girls can go inside and lie down to show how much (or how little!) space each person will have at camp.
  • Bring sleeping mats or sleeping bags and arrange them in the tent to demonstrate the need for small sleeping pads. Practice packing and making bedrolls.
  • Have the girls inspect the tent for damage and/or missing items – i.e. missing guy lines, bent pegs, jammed zippers. Damages could be simulated and lead to a discussion and demonstration on caring for and repairing tents. For example, a piece of cloth with a tear placed on the tent, a guy line removed, and/or old pegs (or no pegs) provided.
  • Challenge experienced campers to set up a tent in the dark, blindfolded, or with other restrictions to test their skills.


  • Practice the knots needed to raise a flag.
  • Learn the commands for a flag raising (colour ceremonial).
  • Have a colour party raise the flag at the beginning of the meeting and take it down at the end. This is simple if you are lucky enough to have a flagpole suitable for hoisting a flag. Temporary options would be a tree branch outdoors, or, for practice purposes, a closet or coatroom rail, or a tall Guider standing on a chair to hold the rope.


  • Take you pick! Activities could include knots, gadget making, map and compass activities, a nature walk, observation games, laying and following trails, etc.

Rest Hour

  • Time for a quiet activity and/or discussion about camp skills.
  • Tell a legend, fable or campfire story.
  • Practice listening – have each girl sit quietly a bit apart from each other. Ask everyone to close their eyes and have them concentrate on what they hear, feel, smell and taste over the next 5-10 minutes. Share as a group what was sensed. 


  • Brainstorm ideas and/or plan your menus for camp.
  • Practice setting up and using your camp stove. Make something simple such as soup or hot chocolate.
  • Build your cooking equipment, such Buddy Burners or a Box Oven.
  • Food preparations – drying or dehydrating foods, precooking items, removing packaging – this will vary with the type of camp.
  • Set up a dish-washing area and learn about the 3-basin method.
  • Make a snack using an interesting cooking method – i.e. kick-the-can ice cream (or ziplock bag ice cream), armpit fudge, brownies in a Box Oven.


  • Practice laying and, if possible, lighting a fire. Where it isn’t possible to light a fire, practice striking matches and lighting a candle safely.
  • Sing your favourite campfire songs.
  • Learn to plan and run a campfire for a group.
  • Make s’mores or another campfire treat – depending on the facilities available.

Striking Camp

  • Practice taking down and rolling up a tent.
  • Discuss why tents need to be put away dry, making repairs, etc.
  • Do a “garbage sweep” of your meeting space to clean up all supplies

Wild Flower Promise

As camping and outdoor activity season arrives, it’s time to remind our girls about respecting nature and “taking only pictures, leaving only footprints”.

This little tidbit comes from a 1924 issue of The Guide magazine and originates with the Girl Scouts of the USA.

I Promise

Not to pick wild flowers in any quantity unless weedy and abundant.

Not to pick more than one out of five from other groups so as to leave plenty to go to seed.

Not to pull them up by the roots unless weedy.

To cut woody stems and not tear or break them.

Not to pick flowers or break plants in parks.

Enjoy, not destroy, the wild flowers.


   (“Every Girl Scout’s Wild Flower Promise”. The Guide. London: Girl Guides Association, July 19, 1924, page 219)

Outdoor Lore for Pathfinder Guiders

The following article may be of use to anyone working on the “Knots, Knives and Outdoor Lore” Module. It appears as part of “The Editor’s Scrapbook” on page 445 of the September 12, 1925 edition of The Guide magazine (Girl Guides Association: London).

Some of Nature’s Barometers

While meteorologists, with the air of wireless, are busy preparing weather forecasts, simple country people are contenting themselves with the barometers which Nature has provided.

And, strange to say, Nature, seldom, if ever makes a mistake.

There is no need, therefore, to take a “weather-glass,” with us when we go on holiday. All we have to do is to use our eyes.

  • If we see cattle in a field scratching themselves vigorously, or standing with their tails towards the wind, we may safely prepare for rain.
  • If there is the hope of a wet morning clearing up, the fowl will remain under shelter a least for a time, but if they come flocking out into the rain there is little chance of the weather clearing that day.
  • Wet weather seems to have an exhilarating effect on frogs, toads, and crickets, who are always particularly lively just before rain. The blackbird, too, is at his best when rain is in the air.
  • Swallows flying high, and the presence of birds among the eaves of houses, are regarded as good portents.
  • Hazy mornings promise fine days, but there is a proverb current in some parts of the country which says “Shine before seven, means rain before eleven.”
  • Storms which come from the north-west or the south-west are almost always of short duration, but a storm from the north-east is likely to be long and severe.
  • A veering wind means fine weather, while a “backing” wind, or a wind that comes in sudden guests, is a harbinger of showers.

As well as these are several “indoor” weather signs which prophesy with remarkable accuracy.

  • Soot falling from the chimney, and creaking of furniture are portents of rain.
  • Domestic animals are restless before a storm, very often a cat will turn her back towards the fire, whilst birds display ruffled plumage and general “mopiness.”
  • Sufferers from rheumatism and certain forms of neuralgia seem to carry a barometer about with them. They are able to look up at the cloudless sky and foretell – truthfully – rain.

Speaking of “Nature’s Barometers,” we ask ourselves where the information originated. These signs are based upon the observance and the experience of centuries during which our ancestors lived so close to Nature as to be in touch with many of her secrets. Much as we owe to science in these days, we must never forget that there are still many things which are withheld from the wise and the prudent and “revealed unto babes.”

Additional signs from the article “Weather Portents” by A.H. Hall, found in The Girl Guides’ Gazette, August 1924, pages 226-228

  • “Red in the morning//Is the shepherd’s warning//Red at night//Is the shepherd’s delight.”
  • A bright yellow sky at sunset often means wind, and a pale yellow sky, rain.
  • When the sun sets behind a bank of horizontal cloud, or ‘stratus cloud’ as it is called, and the colour is good, that is, the clouds do not look heavy with rain and the sky is reddish, we may expect fine weather, especially if in the morning the sun rises through this type of cloud, and its heat dispels the could and mist formed.
  • When the weather is unsettled and the sun rises from a clear sky, and in the clear atmosphere looks exceedingly bright, it is usual to expect clouds to form and rain to descend during the day.
  • After fine weather, the first signs of an impending change are light streaks of cloud, which increase and gradually overcast the sky; the further away these streaks or wisps appear to be, the longer will be the period before rain actually comes.
  • “If bees stay at home//Rain will soon come,//If they fly away//Fine will be the day.”
  • Many flowers close up their petals on the approach of rain, and only open fully when the weather is fine.

Some Tales of an Old Company – 1st Wimbledon

The following article by Agnes Mary Maynard appeared in The Guide, April 25, 1936, page 41. It talks of her Company’s adventures in 1910, 1911 and 1912.

On any Saturday afternoon in 1910 you would have seen a Company of Guides with large blue hats, chin straps and white haversacks, marching up Wimbledon Hill to the Common, followed by a crowd of small urchins shouting “Girl Scouts, brussel sprouts,” for we seldom went anywhere without this accompaniment. Having arrived, the whole Company ran a mile from the pond to the windmill; some practising for their mile test and the rest to get rid of the boy accompaniment or to reach the woods to start the usual tracking and signalling games.

Other badges were also worked at out-of-doors. One Saturday we took babies in perambulators on to the Common to practice amusing them; nearly every Guide brought one, their own or a borrowed one. I thought I was giving the mothers a rest, but they came too, to see what was going to happen to the babies, and apparently quite enjoyed their outing and the tea from the haversacks.

Once we took three babies to camp – ages 4 to 6. Every morning a hip bath was placed in the field and the Guides not doing orderly work or washing them were busy retrieving them from the wood, where they loved to escape with nothing on.

Our first camp at the sea was in 1911, at Whitstable. We took an unfurnished house of six rooms for 5s. a week (!) which we used for sleeping purposes. We cooked on the shore in tin basins – a hole was dug and a fire of drift wood built in it and later the big pieces removed and a big basin of meat and vegetables for 15 Guides placed in the hole and another basin placed on the top of it and the fire rebuilt over it; while we bathed and paddled our dinner was being baked – and very good it generally was.

One day we went to visit the Guides of Canterbury, eight miles away, but we never thought of not walking; the Guides all managed it, but some of their boots gave out, and one child of 9 we sent home with an escort by train. The Canterbury Guides had only got hats and ties, but they were very keen. It was always a great excitement to visit another Company, for as there was, as yet, no book of rules, you can imagine we varied quite a bit, both in appearance and activities. In 1912 another Company came to camp with us, and two Lieutenants from Bournemouth; we wore cotton overalls and had no colours or drill, but were quite good backwoodsmen. They arrived in tight-fitting navy serge dresses buttoned right up to the neck, with the army collar of those days, Sam Brown belts and cocks feathers, and sundry decorations. They clicked their heels and saluted every time we met, which is pretty often when one camps together! By the end of the week we had both learned a good deal from each other. Our next exciting adventure was when we tracked some heifers which had escaped from a nearby field. We were having dinner when we heard that the whole village had been searching for them since 8 a.m. We went off at once and found the tracks where they had got out of the field; we followed their tracks across country for four miles; often they scattered in a turnip field or became almost invisible on heather country; it was always the youngest Guides who picked up their tracks again. After four hours we met their owner as we were trying to drive them home again, a task we found more difficult than tracking them; he was very angry and declared that we must have let them out or we could not have found them so far away, but when we got back to the village our name was made, the more so as the Guides would take no reward. So little by little people began to realise we were not aping soldiers, but just girls fond of the out-of-doors, learning to be useful, and they began to realise that haversacks were tidier than paper bags, waterbottles better than jugs, and that marching in fours was by far the best way of moving a crowd, all things to which the public had objected at first.

(Please note, illustrations are not from the original article)

Games for Outdoor Skills

These games appear in an article entitled “Some Games for Sea Guides” in The Girl Guide Gazette, June 1925

Sea Guides were formed in 1920 for older girls interested in boating, sailing and sealore. They were renamed Sea Rangers in 1927.

Observation Games

A. Show a picture of a ship or sea subject for one minute. Let each Patrol write down everything they have noticed, and see who gets the most items not included in other lists.

B. Each Patrol is given a sphere, such as deep sea, shore, cliff, river, pond, or any other subject. Five minutes allowed in which to write down everything which grows and lives in this sphere.

C. Form a circle facing inwards. The taker of the game hands objects to one Sea Guide who may only feel the object behind her back, and having determined what it is, passes it along. Some eight or ten objects such as rope ends knotted, models of fish or shells, or anything else may be used to test observation. The Sea Guides then write down all they can remember.

D. Sealed instructions may be given to each Patrol, telling them to do something or to go out for a certain walk, and return and report what they have seen, or to follow a certain course by paces and compass directions or by map. They report the result using as many nautical terms as possible.

E. Patrols go out of room; Patrol Leaders remain. Obstacles such as chairs placed at random to represent rocks, derelicts, safe harbour, etc. Patrols return. First Patrol Leader takes charge of her Patrol who are blindfolded and in file holding belts. Patrol Leader gives orders such as “Full steam ahead,” “Stop,” “Port your helm.” If Patrol touches obstacle it is out of game.

F. A story embodying a meeting between a man-o’-war and a pirate ship may be told, when each member of the Patrol represents a member of the crew, and has to run around the Patrol when her name is mentioned.

Compass Games

A. Sea Guides at attention as for signalling drill. Taker of game calls out compass directions. Everyone has to jump to position facing direction. Those who fail fall out.

B. Patrols in file. Patrol Leader receives set of compass directions shown on cards such as N.W., S.E., W. by N., etc., and distributes them to her Patrol. At sound of whistle each Patrol runs to corner and the members sit on floor with feet facing the direction on the card she received, thus forming compass.

C. Treasure is hidden in a certain part of the room, or out of doors, compass directions being carefully worked out beforehand, by which the treasure may be found on taking a certain number of paces N.W. then E., then so many points to starboard, etc. Directions are read out to the Company, and they note them down and then work out their devious course to the treasure. 

Stalking Games

One Patrol lies down asleep with spaces between them. Another Patrol tries to get through the ranks noiselessly. If a member of the sleeping Patrol hears a sound she has to call out the compass direction from which it came. If correct she is counted to have caught the stalker. 

Outdoor Adventures in North Toronto

North Toronto Leaders’ Annual Paper Chase and Corn Roast
(In The Guide, December 15, 1934, page 1107)

     We met at St. George’s United Church at 2 o’clock on Saturday under a very uncertain looking sky.

     From these we hiked to the City Limits where we bought our corn at the North York Market. Here some Guides went ahead on bikes. Our destination was Armour Heights where we soon arrived but could not find the advanced party. While some Guides were looking for them, we collected a huge pile of wood, enough for our supper fires and corn roast, too.

     The lost Guides were found and we started supper. A few drops of rain found their way through the trees, while thunder rumbled in the distance.

     As soon as we finished supper a sudden gust of wind gave us a warning! Everyone hurried into a jacket or sweater, or under a ground sheet, just as a cloudburst descended upon us! In less than two minutes we were soaked to the skin! Still it poured! Our hair was soaked; water ran down our necks and trickled down our legs. Remembering a Guide is cheerful we sang “It Isn’t Any Trouble Just to Smile” while we tried to wring out our skirts!

     At last the rain slowed down! It was agreed that the best thing to do was to hurry home and put on dry clothes.

     We all gathered at our Commissioner’s home in the evening to hold our corn roast. New friendships were made and Camp friendships renewed. Altogether, it was a lovely day!

                                          A Lieutenant Present

The Guide Law and Trees

Wouldn’t this be a neat activity to combine the outdoors and the Promise & Law, or as part of a Guide’s Own ceremony? I wonder which trees Pathfinders and Rangers would choose to represent today’s Guide Laws.

A series of articles by an unnamed Ranger Company that appeared in The Guide in 1925 (May 9, 1925, June 27, 1925, September 5, 1925)

1st Guide Law – A Guide’s honour is to be trusted.

Oak – It is strong and durable, tall and straight. It lives over many years, and has a noble and stately form. This is what a Guide’s honour must be like, strong, noble, lasting and firm – so that our honour and trust will live through all difficulties like the oak lives through all rain and storm. 

Cedar – The cedar is a strong, upright tree, whose branches are always straight to the sky as though they would seek after truth. The leaves are always green and the stately beautiful tree seems to be the embodiment of truth and beauty.

Silver Birch – The silver birch is a tree that will grow and flourish anywhere even in the far north where the ground is snow-covered all the year round. Many are its uses in that dreary land. The silvery bark that peels off so easily, and looks so easy to destroy is wonderfully tough and lasting – even when the wood inside is rotten the bark is quite fresh. A Ranger should be lasting and fresh.

Oak – The oak is wide-spreading, of long endurance in wet or dry. It is thoughtful, because it bears no acorns until it is 70 years old. Great strength in its branches.

2nd Guide Law – A Guide is loyal.

Lombardy Poplar – First, because the tree is perfectly straight as a Guide’s loyalty should be, without any fear of bending. One of the uses of the Lombardy poplar is, the wood is used for making packing cases which hold things together. So our loyalty should bind and hold us together.

Yew – The yew is a small green tree, and keeps green all the year round. It never changes and grows but little. It makes a staunch strong hedge which cannot be broken down. A true lesson of loyalty.

Lombardy Poplar – The Lombardy poplar best suits this law, because of its very uprightness.

Scots Fir & Plane & Birch – The Scots fir, because it grows best in Scotland. The plane, because its heart-wood is of gold. The birch, because it never perishes, yet, if burnt, it lights up quickly into a bright flame.

3rd Guide Law – A Guide’s duty is to be useful and to help others.

Spruce – The spruce seems to be very useful and to go with our 3rd law. The tree produces valuable timber, also the substance known as Burgundy pitch – the bark is used for tanning – the inner bark for baskets. The wood is used for beams and lathes. In Norway and Sweden poor people earn money by gathering and selling the sprigs. There is nothing of the spruce which cannot be made useful. It grows to a very great height and has a perfect, erect form, with a solid trunk. As Guides we want to be useful in every way, and we want our usefulness to be solid so that other people can depend on us in great need, or when help is wanted. We want also our usefulness to grow and grow to a great height like the spruce.

Oak – The oak best expresses this law. It grows slowly, making the wood hard and strong, which can be made into ships, and beams for ceilings, and heavy furniture. The bark is useful for making ink and dyeing leather. The fruit is useful for pigs and squirrels. Every part of the tree can be made use of. So must we also make use of every power and gift; brain and limb, in every possible way.

Plane – The plane tree is very useful. It is shady in summer. Its three dark looking bobbles remind us of our three Guide promises. It throws its old bark off as soon as it is done with, just as we should when we begin to slack, and not help others.

Lime – The lime has more uses than any other tree. You get bast from the inner bark; paper from the bark; baskets from the pliant twigs; the wood is good for engraving and carving, and also make good charcoal for gunpowder; the leaves and young shoots are used for poultices and formentations. Lime flower tea is a good tonic and good for headaches. The sap drawn off in spring contains sugar. The seed roasted can be made into an oily substance like chocolate. The flowers also make brandy and wind. Cows, goats, horses, sheep, pigs feed on its leaves.


4th Guide Law – A Guide is a friend to all and a sister to every other Guide.

Plane – I love to think of the plane tree as being a friend to many folks who live in our crowded towns, as this is where the plane tree is nearly always seen. I think many of our streets would look lost without the fine forms of the plane tree. Its bark peels off in great pieces and we must let our dislike of others peel off us and be friends to them. It is a handsome tree, and fast growing, and very useful. The leaves are like a hand with five pointed fingers. As we see these hand-like leaves on the tree, so we too can use our hands to shelter and serve our neighbours.

Scots Fir – A strong tall tree is the Scots fir. A tree which stands firm as a rock, such as our friendship to each other should be. It is hardy and used to all weathers, not easily swayed, or blown down. The cones are hardy and not easily decayed. Friendship is firm at the heart even though the outside be decayed. We must be ever ready to stand up for those we love.

Oak – The oak tree represents friendliness, because of its very slow growth, its strength, and its everlasting uses.

Chestnut & Elm – The chestnut tree gives shade and promotes friendship – “Under the spreading chestnut tree.” The elm, because the wood is difficult to split.

5th Guide Law – A Guide is courteous.

Scots Fir – The Scots fir is a noble and sturdy tree and has a beauty in its strength and dignity. Its leaves are like thin long needles which look pretty growing in pairs. it is a valuable tree and gives good products. Like the Scots fir a Guide’s courtesy should be a noble virtue with a beauty and strength in it, growing tall our fir, until we produce good manners and politeness. We want our courtesy to be something beautiful, a thing to stand out in our character like the long graceful leaves each standing out one by one on the fir.

Oak – The oak tree is a very polite tree. It allows all sorts of animals and insects to live on it. It lets flies and beetles build their houses on its leaves and branches. Squirrels are allowed to store their nuts in any holes in the tree. Even other plants, such as ivy or mistletoe are allowed to live on the tree, and feed off the tree. On the whole the oak is a dear, kind old tree – very homely.

Aspen – The aspen, because it is always swaying with the wind.

Birch & Spindlewood – The birch, because it is graceful and does not take up much room. Spindlewood because it can be cut as fine as a needle and will bend almost double. 

6th Guide Law – A Guide is a friend to animals.

Horse Chestnut – When we think of friends to animals, we look for a person with a big kind heart, someone with hands to protect and care for them like our noble, fine horse chestnut. It has beautiful large branches which give shelter in time of rain. The nuts give food for our horses, cattle, and sheep, and when they decay they can be made into a kind of soap. It is a fast growing tree and is beautiful when in bloom. The timber has many uses. The fallen leaves are used for pig-stys. Guides, like the horse chestnut, should ever be ready to care for animals, having big kind hearts for them, and hands to see to their needs, then our kindness will grow to a thing of beauty, and blossom in many kinds of ways. Animals are faithful creatures and are known to save life, and as the horse chestnut grows fast so Guides should let their love and devotion grow for animals too.

Elm – The elm is a nice kind tree. It gives shade from burning sun and the birds love to build their nests on its branches, especially the rooks. These make an untidy nest on the top-most branches, and they always look as though they would fall off when the wind sways the tree. Insects make their homes in the tree.

Horse Chestnut – The horse chestnut is not good for all animals, but pigs, sheep and deer will eat the nuts readily enough.

Beech & Hazel – The beech, because, for drought, it collects water in the hollows of the tree and birds can find drink. It is shady. It provides nuts for squirrels and other animals. The hazel gives nuts, and shelter for bids, and for their nests.

Unfortunately, it appears that this series of articles was never finished. I wonder what trees would have been proposed for the remaining Guide Laws – 

7th Guide Law – A Guide obeys orders.

8th Guide Law – A Guide smiles and sings under all difficulties.

9th Guide Law – A Guide is thrifty.

10th Guide Law – A Guide is pure in thought, word and deed.

Camping Tips & Hints

(Excerpted from Campcraft for Girl Guides. The Girl Guides Association, London, 1935. pp 293-297)

When eggs are scarce, dissolve 1 tablespoonful of golden syrup in ½ pint of warm milk – this equals 4 eggs. Stand in salt and water to cool.

clotheslineNo need for clothes pegs if the drying line is made of two twisted ropes with corners of cloths, etc., inserted between twists.

Cleaning greasy pots. Boil water in them, to which a good handful of wood ash has been added, or scour with wood ash or sand.

Why have a black billy? If the outside of the billy is rubbed with grease before use, the black can be easily removed with a wisp of grass.

To clean knives and forks – if rusty, burnish by rubbing with freshly cut potato dipped in wood ash.

To dry damp matches – place them in the hair for a few moments, or alternatively rub them briskly between the palms of the hands, leaving the head exposed.

A camp hot water bottle. Hot stones or bricks from the fire place make an emergency hot water bottle. Wrap up to avoid burning the feet.

A shelter can be made from a section cut from an old bell tent.shelter

An obstinate tent peg – to remove – lever up with a stake at least eighteen inches long.

Bent spikes on uprights are caused by bad pitching or striking. When uprights are raised or lowered unevenly – one in advance of the other – they get bent by the leverage of the ridge pole.

Oil dissolves rubber and if spilt on groundsheets will therefore ruin them.

To water-proof material for groundsheets, rub boiled linseed oil into the material between the palms of the hands. Use just enough oil to fill pores, without leaving surplus. One quart will do five or six yards of material. Stretch cloth in dry, shady place of a week, and then hang in the sunlight for three or four days.

Water-proofing shoes. Leather can be rendered pliable and waterproof by rubbing caster oil or Vaseline well into shoes. Veterinary Vaseline is cheap and suitable.

Uses for adhesive plaster – to seal tins or boxes, or hold cork in bottle. Also makes good hinges and is useful for many repairs.

bedrollTo tie up bedding. Strong belts from discarded coats and mackintoshes can be used for fastening up rolls of bedding. Companies can collect and keep a store of these.watercarrier

To steady water pails. One way is to use a hoop (willow or hazel) or, alternatively, a square of four sticks lashed together. This steadies the pail and takes strain off the arms.

To improvise a bath. Find a conveniently large hole in the ground and over it place a sheet of proofed canvas. Fill with water.

Notices. If these are varnished the ink will not run if exposed to rain.

How to climb a gate. If it is necessary to climb a gate, do so at the hinge end where it is supported by the post, as this will put the least strain on the gate. It strains a gate to sit on it, as it is not made to carry weight.

A camp pillow may be made of sheep’s wool, gathered from the hedgerows and washed, dried and teased.

An improvised pillow. When hiking, a pair of shoes arranged toe to toe and covered with something soft makes a serviceable pillow.

Care of feed – to harden, soak in a strong solution of salt and warm water, or alum and water (1/2 teaspoonful alum to pint of water). Where there is a tendency to blister dap on methylated spirit. On a long walk change stockings from one foot to another, dusting them with boracic or talcum powder. This eases feet and prevents rubbing.

Thirst – a plum stone or pebble retained in the mouth helps to prevent this.

Sunday brims – lay hat on flat stone and iron over damp handkerchief with bottle filled with very hot water, or with a mug filled with hot ash.light2

light1A safe light – (a) place a candle in a jar half-filled with water. As the candle burns it rises automatically and when it is nearly all gone it sinks in the water and so goes out. (b) Affix a candle to the top of a stake and cover with an inverted bottle with the bottom removed. To remove bottom from bottle stand it on hot embers for two or three seconds, then pour in half an inch of cold water. Trim stake to fit neck of bottle.